The retina and particularly the macula react spontaneously to different pathological conditions.

  • In case of retinal detachment, as in case of any injury, there is a stimulation of EGF-R (epidermal growth factor receptor), which regulates the gliosis, the tissue homeostasis, the injury response, the stem cell proliferation, the angiogenesis and the anti-apoptotic factor.  Under EGF-R stimulation, the microglia stimulate the Müller cells, which fill with microfibrils of GFAP and induce a pro-inflammatory factor production. This factor activates by a fill back effect the microglia so that the radial glia formed by the Müller cells gliosis increase. The Müller cell gliosis can fight against blood retina barrier breakdown and has synaptogenesis properties.
  • In case of ischemia, there is a spontaneous astrocytic proliferation. The astrocytes fill with GFAP in order to repair the lesions. The only problem is that the astrocytic gliosis, in opposition to Müller cell gliosis, is limited to the ganglion cell layer.

These findings let us understand that the future for macular treatment could be obtained by a precursor of EGF-R.