Francesco Boscia (Bari, Italy)

Approximately 80% to 90% of cases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are dry AMD (or non-neovascular AMD). Among those cases, 12-20% progresses to geographic atrophy (GA) and severe visual loss. To date, no medical or surgical treatment is available for this condition, however vitamin supplements with high doses of antioxidants, lutein <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutein> and zeaxanthin <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeaxanthin>, have been suggested by the National Eye Institute and others to slow the progression of dry AMD and, in some patients, improve visual acuity. In this course we will discuss new diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches for dry AMD. New diagnostic technologies are able to investigate retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors, where major changes of this pathology occur. Sixteen topical, intravitreal or systemic drugs with different targets on etiologic pathways are currently investigated in order to prevent the progression of dry AMD to GA.