Pathological myopia is a common cause of visual impairment worldwide. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is its most threatening complication, often resulting in irreversible deterioration and loss of central vision.
The precise pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear and several theories have been proposed. Improvements have been made in the diagnosis and characterization of myopic CNV over the years but there are no recognized measures that can prevent the development of CNV.

Treatment options in the past, such as thermal LASER photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, aimed to prevent further visual loss. New treatments with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor have been effective and may improve vision, however the long-term efficacy of these agents remains unknown.

The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology, risk factors, pathologic mechanisms and clinical features of myopic CNV and to present the follow up of some patients with this diagnosis.