Cesare Forlini, Paolo Rossini, Antonio Aversano (Department of Ophthalmology, “S.Maria delle Croci” Hospital, Ravenna, Italy), Matteo Forlini (Eye Clinic, University of Modena, Italy)


To show how to use or avoid the three colours of Italian flag (white, green and red) during vitreoretinal surgery.


The use of IVT® (an approved Triamcinolone acetonide for intraocular use produced by an Italian company) for vitreous visualization, posterior hyaloid and epiretinal membrane peeling and closure of macular hole and RPE protection during macular hole surgery; the use of IFCG to stain the ILM for macular surgery: the IFCG is injected and used under PFCL to remove the ILM in retinal detachment. All these manoeuvres attempt to avoid the redness of bleeding.

Effectiveness / Safety:

After Triamcinolone removal, no staining around and inside the macular hole; the ILM is coloured by IFCG under PFCL as well as on the normal flat retina, and the peeling can be easily completed.