The main goal of this study is to test the dynamics of ischemic damage after bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and to examine the impact of Triamcinolone (Glucocorticoid) and Lornoxicam (NSAID) on the general condition of the eye and retina. Ischemic component is present in almost any vitreoretinal disease and can be called forth as an eye circulatory deficiency. As a result of hypoxia signaling pathways are activated and growth processes commence. Therefore ischemia can be the cause of proliferative forms of the disease. By bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion hypoxic damage of the target region can be achieved and at the same time total brain ischemia is reduced. Development of the ischemic damage surely is associated with activation of arachidonic acid metabolism and production of inflammatory mediators. Therefore using anti-inflammatory drugs can be justified in an ischemic inflammation model.


Eye ischemia was modeled by irreversible bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion on the Wistar rats. Rats were intravitreally injected with Lornoxicam (2 µL 0.008 mg/µL) or Triamcinolone (2 µL 0.04 mg/µL) or physiological saline (2 µL). 24 and 48 hours after the procedure parenteral maintaining injections were performed in dosage recommended for humans. Enucleation was carried out 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after occlusion.


In certain cases severe cerebral affection is displayed. In such cases the mortality rate constitutes about 30% and is quite independent of using therapy. In all groups cataract was detected so intravitreal injections were aggravated ischemic damage. Neovascularization was observed in the long term, also vasodilatation was identified in all timelines. Besides, alterations of retina layers architectonics and retinal detachment were found. Eye ischemia was attended degeneration of retina and optical nerve. In the long term rosette alterations affected only ONL or all retinal layers were exposed. Lornoxicam and Triamcinolone injections improved eye appearance, influenced on retinal layer remodeling after ischemic damage.


After bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion eye ischemia symptoms were established. At a longer period starting from 2 weeks after the surgery signs of proliferation were detected. Triamcinolone (Glucocorticoid) and Lornoxicam (NSAID) reduced inflammatory response and intensity of retinal degeneration. Study is supported by a RFBR grant– 14-04-01318-a.