Macular edema may be present in eyes that have undergone vitrectomy for a number of reasons (despite ILM peeling).

Are anti-VEGF drugs effective in these cases and how should they be used?

The paper attempts to answer this question through a comparative study of a limited number of vitrectomized eyes of patients who receive anti-VEGF treatment for macular edema versus a control group which have undergone vitrectomy without anti-VEGF.