Sema Oruç Dündar, MD1, Rabia Sakarya, MD1, Mukadder Serter, MD2, Çigdem Yenisey, PhD2, Erkin Kır, MD1, Turgay Aktunç, MD1. 1: Department of Ophthalmology, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey. 2: Department of Biochemistry, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey


To determine the relation between the stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with diabetes compared with healthy controls.


153 patients with diabetes with or without DR and 62 non-diabetic healthy subjects as controls were included in this study. The patients with diabetes were classified into three groups according to the stage of DR: no DR(NDR, n=44), non-proliferative DR (NPDR, n=67) and proliferative DR (PDR, n=42).


Patients with PDR had significantly higher serum NO and plasma MDA levels compared with controls (p≤0.05). Serum NO levels were also significantly higher in patients with NPDR and NDR compared with controls (p≤0.05). Serum GSH levels were significantly lower in patients with NPDR and PDR than in controls (p≤0.05).


The results of this study suggest that NO, MDA and GSH may play important roles in the pathophysiology of DR.

Take-home message:

NO, MDA and GSH may participate in the development and progression of DR. Further investigation of the mechanism of action is needed to be able to understand the precise role of NO, MDA and GSH in diabetes.