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Macular Changes After Uneventful Phaco in Diabetic Patients and Risk Factors Contributing to Increase Retina Thickness

SCIENTIFIC POSTER 2016_Macular Changes After Uneventful Phaco in Diabetic Patients and Risk Factors Contributing to Increase Retina Thickness Maaly Abdel Fattah Introduction: The incidence of subclinical macular edema after uneventful phacoemulsification has become an issue of safety for this frequently performed operation. Advances in phacoemulsification techniques and intraocular lens design have led to improved outcomes following...

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Micropulse Laser 577 nm: A Perfect « Second Line » Treatment for ME ?

Purpose: The authors report several tips and tricks increasing efficiency of 577 nm Micropulse Laser (MIP) in treatment of macular oedema recurrence in eyes with previous ILM peeling surgery. Methods: The study is a retrospective clinical study of sub threshold laser treatment as a tissue-sparing laser photocoagulation for ME. Eyes included underwent treatment for ME due different pathologies (Diabetic Retinopathy, branch or central...

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Safety and Efficacy of Intravitreal Preservative-free Triamcinolone for ME Secondary to Diabetes or Retinal Vein Occlusion

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension (Taioftal) for the treatment of macular edema secondary to diabetes or retinal vein occlusion. Design, Setting & Participants: From January 2015 to December 2015, at Ospedale Maggiore of Bologna, a retrospective study was conducted on patients suffering from macular edema secondary to diabetes or retinal vein occlusion....

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Combined Intravitreal Anti-VEGF & Subtenon Corticosteroids in AMD Reduces ME Recurrence and Increases Delay Between IVTs

Purpose:  To evaluate, with time, efficiency of combined treatment using Anti-VEGF & subtenon corticosteroids in ME recurrence in AMD Material and methods: All kinds of CNV in AMD were included in this retrospective study (classic, minimally classic, occult, PEDs…). Both Ranibizumab and Aflibercept were used and associated with subtenon corticosteroids. Corticosteroid was mostly bethamethasone acetate vs triamcinolone...

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New Sharing-economy in Ophthalmology : The Trojan Horse of Multiple IVTs with Easy Protocols Guidelines

Purpose: Report of some common attitudes in medical retinal practice with multiple IVTs, issues pertaining to high risk of over-standardization, lower necessity of an expert medical advice and short-time possibilities of low-cost evolution excluding ophthalmologists Methods: Protocols with IVTs required for AMD or ME treatments are analysed and we have pointed out several medical contestations of these protocols. Results: Nowadays...

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Vitreo-retinal Interface in Non-tractional DME

Vitrectomy is a well-known technique for dealing with “tractional DME”. Most doctors however prefer medical treatment for “non-tractional” DME. Recently performed, ME EVRS study proved that vitrectomy may be a valuable treatment option for “non-tractional” DME. The aim of this presentation is to show the vitreo-retinal relationship in “nontractional DME” revealed during the surgery, pointing that in...

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Incidence and Risk Factors of Cystoid Macular Edema After Retinal Detachment Surgery

Purpose : To evaluate the incidence rate of cystoid macular edema (CME) after uncomplicated primary operation on retinal detachment (RD) and to identify risk factors associated with postoperative CME. Methods : Retrospective interventional case series of consecutive patients that underwent one RD repair either by primary vitrectomy or external procedure during a 3 years period starting on January 2012. Postoperative CME was defined as...

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The Paradox of ILM Peeling: It Is Traumatic but it Works…Why ?

ILMP is challenged because it may injure the Retinal Fiber and the Retinal Ganglion cells layers. And indeed ILMP tears Muller Cells (MC) endfeet, and eventually retinal astrocytes, and endothelial cells. However numerous studies as well as routine clinical practice have long shown that well-conducted Vitrectomy-ILMP can reabsorb macular edema and improve visual acuity in the majority of cases. It is acknowledged today that EGFR (Epidermal...

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Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser for the Treatment of Clinically Significant DME Less than 400 μ

Purpose: To assess effect of micropulse diode laser (MPDL) on best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) in treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular oedema (CSME) as compared to conventional argon green laser (CGL) treatment. Design: Single-center, prospective, interventional, comparative study. Methods: Twenty four patients (40 eyes) with diabetic CSME were randomly assigned to MPDL (n=20) or CGL...

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Micropulse Contiguous Grid Laser for Diffuse DME

Objective: To investigate micropulse contiguous grid laser in fovea involved DDME and to correlate SD-OCT structural changes with resolution target visual fields. Purpose: To investigate micropulse contiguous grid laser in the treatment of eyes with DDME involving the fovea, and second, to correlate OCT findings with resolution target visual field (RTVF) measurements of threshold acuity at fixation, best acuity measured at any intercept...

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Definition of Cystoid Macular Degeneration in DME

Purpose: To describe cystoid macular degeneration (CMD) which had no clear definition in diabetic macular edema (DME) and to investigate related characteristics. Method: Retrospective study. Two hundred fifty one eyes of 179 patients who had cystic changes in OCT were enrolled. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the biggest cyst in the area of 1000µm from the center of the fovea were measured for the definition of CMD. The analysis...

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Microstructural Changes Depicted by OCT in DME: Insight into Pathomorphology and Tailored Management

The introduction of OCT and intravitreal pharmacotherapy has revolutionized the management of diabetic macular edema (DME). So far, central retinal thickness (CRT) is the most commonly used measure to quantify DME in randomized controlled trials and by retinal physicians in clinical practice. However, various studies showed that CRT has a modest correlation with visual acuity in DME and this relation is sometimes paradoxical. This...

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Delicate Procedure for Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Macular Edema

Iurii Belyi_SCIENTIFIC POSTER 2015_1 Purpose: To develop an optimized mechanical method of internal limiting membrane peeling. Method: We observed 3 patients with cystic macular edema of various etiologies. All patients were examined before and after the operation for: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, perimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Stratus, Carl Zeiss Meditec) and retina photography. According to...

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Anatomical & Functional Results After Different Treatment Modalities in Serous Macular Detachment Accompanying DME

Mehmet Demir_SCIENTIFIC POSTER 2015_1 Aim: To investigate the effect of application of a variety of treatment modalities on central macular thickness (CMT), serous macular detachment height (SMD) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in diabetic macular edema (DME) with serous macular detachment. Methods: Eighteen eyes of 15 female and 20 eyes of 13 male Type 2I diabetic patients with DME and SMD applied to Retina Clinic were included in...

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Triamcinolone Versus Ranibizumab Intravitreal Injection Combined with Grid Laser Photocoagulation in the Management of Diffuse DME

The present study was conducted at Mansoura Health Insurence Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt. The study included 136 eyes diabetic patients, 80 males 56 females. All eyes had diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME). The best corrected visual acuity was tested. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCT were preformed. The 136 eyes were divided into two groups. Group I included 72 eyes which were subjected to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone (4 mg,...

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Flucinolone Acetate Intravitreal Implant in the Treatment of Persistent and Chronic DME. A Tertiary Multicentre Study

Introduction: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a well known complication of diabetes. Until the last decade argon laser was considered the gold standard treatment of clinically significant macular oedema. Recent landmark studies (READ2, RESTORE, Relight, DRCR.net protocol I) shifted the focus of treatment towards intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF. However, anti-VEGF showed a limited effect in chronic CMO. The FAME study revealed...

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Posterior SubTenon Triamcinolone Acetonide Treatment in DME Cases

Burak ERDEN_SCIENTIFIC POSTER 2015 Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior subTenon triamcinolone acetonid injection in diabetic macular edema cases Material/Method: 13 eyes of 12 diabetic macular edema patients ( 7 M, 5 F ) were enrolled into this retrospective study. 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide was injected into the subTenon space via blunt tip cannula through a minor conjunctival incision in the inferonasal quadrant...

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Correlation Between VA and Both Angiographic & Tomographic Imaging Findings in Common Causes of ME

Maha Shahin_SCIENTIFIC POSTER 2015 Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the area of fluorescein leakage and central foveal thickness (CFT) in common causes of macular edema with visual acuity (VA). Method: A consecutive series of 111 eyes (71 patients) with macular edema was included. The study had 3 different groups: Group I (71 eyes) with diabetic macular edema, group II (29 eyes) with edema secondary to vein occlusion and...

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Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant for Chronic DME Resistant to Ranibizumab Injections

Nil İrem Uçgun_SCIENTIFIC POSTER 2015 Purpose: To assess the effect of intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) 0,7 mg implant (Ozurdex) in patients with chronic diabetic macular edema resistant to prior intravitreal (IV) monthly 5 dose Ranibizumab. Materials & Methods: Twenty five eyes of 24 patients were included the study. Before and after IV DEX implant visual acuity, central macular thickness (CMT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were...

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Vitrectomy in Treatment Naive Diabetic Macular Edema

This movie presents the idea behind vitrectomy in treatment naive diabetic macular edema with and without epiretinal membranes. Surgical technique with ILM peeling will be demonstrated in multiple cases. Everything will be documented with SD-OCT and Swept Source OCT images. Intrasurgically, vitreomacular traction is present in most cases of diabetic macular edema, even if not visible in OCT images. Finally, surgical anatomic and functional...

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Retinal Vascular Tortuosity and Recurrent ME in Crohn Disease: A Rare Ocular Manifestation or an Independent Vascular Pathology?

SCIENTIFIC POSTER_Silvia Monteiro_2 Introduction: Crohn’s disease (CD) is primarily considered an inflammatory condition of the small and large intestine, although associated extraintestinal inflammation is relatively common. Extra-intestinal manifestations of CD occur in one third of patients. Ocular complications are infrequent, occurring in less than 10% of cases, but can be associated with significant morbidity. Ocular manifestations...

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ME in Usher Syndrome: Several Cases Treated with Dexamethasone Implant

Purpose: To investigate the outcomes in Usher Syndrome-associated macular edema treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Method: 4 patients treated with dexamethasone implant for macular edema in Usher Syndrome. Documented by ophthalmic evaluation, OCT and fundus photography. Results: Significant increase in visual acuity due to an improvement of macular edema in all cases. Conclusions: Intravitreal implant of dexamethasone may be...

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1% Topical Brinzolamide, First Results of Clinical Outcomes on ME in Vitrectomized Eyes

This study reports the effects of 1% topical Brinzolamide on macular oedema in glaucomatous pseudophakic eyes which have previously sustained vitrectomy and peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). Conditions: In seven cases of glaucomatous pseudophakic eyes with previous vitrectomy and ILM peeling, chronic macular oedema occurred . There was not a good tonometric compensation with ß-blockers and no response to topical (NSAIDs) in...

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Macular Photocoagulation Assisted by Intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) Versus Triamcinolone (IVTA) in Diabetic Macular Edema with Serous Macular Detachment

Advantage: Diabetic macular edema (DME) with serous macular detachment (SMD) responds poorly to laser treatment due to presence of subretinal fluid but has been seen to resolve following both IVB and IVTA. Re-injections maybe required owing to their limited period of action. We, thus, compared the efficacy of IVTA and IVB followed by laser photocoagulation, in treating DME with SMD. Methods: In this prospective interventional case...

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Intravitreal Diclofenac for Macular Edema (ME) in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO)

Advantage: Various modes of pharmacological intervention like posterior subtenon triamcinolone, intravitreal triamcinolone and bevacizumab, have been seen to be useful in macular edema in BRVO. However, use of triamcinolone has risk of cataract and glaucoma development while bevacizumab is an expensive drug. Intravitreal diclofenac has been found to be effective in decreasing diabetic macular edema but has not been used in macular edema...

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Ozurdex in Vitrectomized Eyes

Purpose: To define the effectiveness of dexamethasone implant in macular edema in vitrectomized eyes. Methods: Two eyes of 2 patients, (one with diabetic macular edema, the other with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion) who had been treated with intravitreal anti-VEGFs, triamcinolone, laser photocoagulations and vitrectomy + ILM peeling earlier without any response, were treated with IV dexamethasone implant as a...

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Micropulsed Laser: The New Standard for Macular Edema?

Methods: We present the use of 577 nm micro pulsed laser for several types of macular edema such as diabetic macular edema (DME) and edema secondary to vascular occlusions. One hundred thirty-six eyes of 109 diabetic patients and twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) were treated with yellow micro pulsed diode laser in highly confluent manner. ETDRS best corrected visual acuity, High definition optical...

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Targeted PRP Directed By Optos Wide Field Fluorescein Angiography To Treat Severe DME

12 Patients with severe DME (CMT > 350 microns) were prospectively enrolled. Wide field Optos fluorescein angiography to determine areas of poor peripheral perfusion. Patients then underwent an injection of Avastin and PRP directed to areas of poor perfusion. Two more monthly injections of Avastin were given. If at the end of 4 months observation period DME persisted, wide field angiography was repeated and more PRP was applied to areas...

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Efficacy of Anti-VEGF Drugs for Macular Edema in Vitrectomized Eyes

Macular edema may be present in eyes that have undergone vitrectomy for a number of reasons (despite ILM peeling). Are anti-VEGF drugs effective in these cases and how should they be used? The paper attempts to answer this question through a comparative study of a limited number of vitrectomized eyes of patients who receive anti-VEGF treatment for macular edema versus a control group which have undergone vitrectomy without...

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Intravitreal Implant of Dexamethasone for the Treatment of Refractory Vitrectomy Induced Cystoid Macular Edema

Advantages: Surgically induced cystoid macular edema (SICME) is a complication that can occur after various types of intra-ocular surgeries. SICME could be seen following glaucoma surgery, iridotomies, penetrating keratoplasty, scleral buckling, anterior vitrectomy and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The incidence of SICME is usually higher in more complicated procedure (combined procedures). There are several articles documenting that SICME...

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Discussion

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Finally … What to do? Discussion

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Self Testing in Macular Edema: Possible Applications and Their Limits

Since 1994, the Freiburg Visual Acuity Test allows a standardized visual acuity test with Landolt rings under well-defined conditions for illumination and contrast. Similarly, the web-based test of the Aachen Centrum for Technology transfer in Ophthalmology (ACTO), allows a standardized follow up for macular disorders and other eye diseases. Since smartphones are equipped with a retina display, they can offer cheap tests of visual acuity...

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Individualized Treatment in Macular Edema: Focal vs Diffuse

What I am going to show is that while in focal ME (in CSCh or in NPDR or in TAE etc.), the primary laser treatment is very efficient and almost harmless, thus I recommend laser primarily in these cases. In diffuse edema (as in BRVO, CRVO, DR, Irvine-Gass, uveitis et al), laser coagulation is controversial (often inefficient and even harmful). I will express my embarrassment about the proper choice of the best method of treatment and rather...

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Citalopram Associated with Unilateral Cystoid Macular Edema

Citamopram is an antidepressant drug with fatigue; sleep disorders, appetite changes and visual impairment being the most common side effects. We are not aware of any published cases of cystoid macular edema following usage of this drug. We present a case of 55-year-old woman with medical history of depression, placed on Citalopram medication that noticed deterioration of her vision in her right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was...

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Management of ME in Retinitis Pigmentosa with Topical Dorzolamide

Advantages: Retinitis pigmentosa may be associated with macular edema and cystoid spaces. Topical dorzolamide may be useful in improving macular edema. Methods: Prospective evaluation of the use of dorzolamite  (topical 3 times daily for 3-6 months) in ME cases associated with RP. Six cases with RP were identified by OCTas having macular edema. A course of dorzolamide drops was initiated 3 times/day for 3-6 months. Evaluation of...

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Macular Dilemas in Retinitis Pigmentosa

Advantages: Retinitis pigmentosa is inherited, progressive disease. There is no approved therapy for the disorder itself and there is no approved therapy for its complications as well. Although we are not able to treat RP itself, many secondary changes like cataract, macular edema, macular holes and ERM influencing patients’ vision could be addressed. Methods: Case series to present to diagnostic and treatment challenges in patients...

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Cystoid Macular Edema in Retinitis Pigmentosa

Advantages: To report on medical and surgical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa-associated cystoid macular edema (CME). Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive inherited retinal disease and one of the main causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. There is no approved therapy able to stop the degeneration of the photorecptor cells and the retinal pigment epithelium. The current management using medical and surgical therapy...

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Macular Edema and Exudates in the Pediatric Age Group

Advantages: Identification of causes of macular edema and exudates in pediatric age group in important. Methods: Prospective case series. Pediatric macular edema and exudates provide definite challenges to the practicing ophthalmologist. We present a case series of pediatric macular edema and exudates related in 5 cases to the presence of peripheral retinal hemangioblastoma related to Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease and in 16 cases to...

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Modified Vitreo Retinal Instruments for Macular Surgery on Eyes with High Myopia

Advantages: To improve certain vitreo-retinal instruments to enhance the accesses to posterior pole and avoid complications during macular surgery in highly myopic eyes. Methods: Modified double bent aspiration 23-gauge cannula with 30.00 mm working part was used during pars plana vitrectomy in highly myopic eyes. The aspiration of residual PFCL or BSS with modified cannula was performed under visual control using different kinds of...

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Dome-shaped Macula in Non Myopic Patients; Description and Management

Advantages: Gaucher et al. described an unusual feature in myopic eyes responsible for visual loss called Dome-Shaped macula (D-Sh-M). This condition was defined as a convex elevation of macula within a staphyloma in highly myopic patients as diagnosed by OCT. Moreover, this entity was associated with RPE atrophic changes, foveal retinal detachment and visual impairment. Afterwards, Imamura et al. examined the posterior anatomic...

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Efficacy of Citicoline in Treatment of Diffuse Macular Edema After Successful Surgery of RRD

Background: Effects of systemic citicoline treatment were estimated by measuring the thickness of the various retinal layers in rats with retinal damage induced by kainic acid. Citicoline may provide neuroprotective action against neuronal cell damage. Advantages: Studying efficacy of cytidine-5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) in the treatment of diffuse macular edema after successful surgery of rhegmatogenous retinal...

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Incidence of Cystoid Maclar Edema After Vitrectomy for ERM

Advantage: While the literature on ME following cataract surgery is rich, few papers have been published on the incidence of this complication after vitrectomy. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after vitrectomy in a homogeneous series of eyes that underwent epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling. Possible risk factors and treatment were considered. Methods: Ninety eyes of 89 patients underwent...

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History of Development of Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab

Advantages: Anti-VEGF medications such as ranibizumab and bevacizumab have revolutionized treatment of macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusions and diabetic macular edema. Methods: This presentation discusses development of ranibizumab and bevacizumab from bench (1990s) to bedside (2006).  The process of laboratory studies, randomized clinical trials and FDA approval will be discussed. Effectiveness / Safety: A number of seminal...

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ILM Peeling Different Tricks

The author will describe tricks to make the ILM Peeling easier, faster and less traumatic: The use of the ILM blue allows to differentiate the plaque of adherent posterior hyaloid from the “nude” ILM. According to the respective distribution of these two configurations, the peeling can be done differently: If the surface of “nude” ILM is too small, we must start in removing the posterior hyaloid before removing the ILM. If the...

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ILM Peeling Technique

The aim of the surgery is to reduce and stabilize the macular oedema. The surgery has to be atraumatic and complete, with a big rhexis including the whole macular area, to the optic center in nasal, the vascular arcades and the temporal vascular raphe. An uncomplete/only partial removal, particularly in temporal, will induce bad post-operative results, that are the origin of the often heard criticism about the...

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Various Dyes for ILM Peeling

Advantages: To review current visualization aids for VR surgery with respect to their specific features and clinical applications. Furthermore, to correlate the various staining patterns with the underlying pathology. Methods: ICG, trypan blue, brilliant blue and the combination trypan blue/brilliant blue as well as triamcinolone serve for visualization of the vitreous, proliferative vascular and non-vascular epiretinale membranes and the...

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27 G One Pars Plana Port Vitrectomy with a Reflow Strategy

Purpose : To report our results for macular hole using the anterior chamber infusion (during the reverse zonular flow “Re-flow”-personal technique) one pars plana port 27G vitrectomy technique. Setting/Venue: Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy Methods: A retrospective analysis of 5 eyes which underwent re-flow one port 27g vitrectomy with the infusion in the anterior chamber for macular hole....

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Quantitative Determination and Comparison of Intravitreal Cytokines in PDR and RVO

Purpose: To determine inflammatory and angiogenetic cytokine levels from undiluted vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DRP), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and exsudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and compare them with clinical and anatomic changes. Methods: 187 patients (median age 67.0 years, 101 male) underwent a single-site 23-gauge core vitrectomy for a centred intravitreal application of a combined therapy...

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Pathological Findings in Macular Edema

The retina and particularly the macula react spontaneously to different pathological conditions. In case of retinal detachment, as in case of any injury, there is a stimulation of EGF-R (epidermal growth factor receptor), which regulates the gliosis, the tissue homeostasis, the injury response, the stem cell proliferation, the angiogenesis and the anti-apoptotic factor.  Under EGF-R stimulation, the microglia stimulate the Müller cells,...

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Neurobiological Principles Applied to Retinal Diseases

Retinal and macular diseases are a major cause of visual impairment and affect the quality of life for millions worldwide. Clinical manifestations of retinal diseases result from perturbations in normal cellular behavior and adaptive changes to genetic mutations interacting with environmental factors. During the last years retinal surgery has fine-tuned the techniques and instrumentation, greatly increasing surgical success but not always...

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ME Secondary to Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Choroiditis and Congenital Toxoplasmosis Chorioretinal Scars

Advantages: A successful corticosteroids treatment in a case of macular edema  (ME) secondary to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroiditis and congenital toxoplasmosis chorioretinal scars. Methods: A 38-years-old myopic patient, affected to Beta Thalassemia Minor (HbA2 5.5%) presented sudden onset of photopsia, blurred vision in left eye (LE). The best visual acuity correct (BVCA) was 0.3. Clinical examination...

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Cystoid ME After Macular Hole Surgical Closure

Cystoid ME After Macular Hole Surgical Closure Claudia Bacalhau Objective: Description of a clinical case with scientific interest. Introduction: Macular hole surgery has now very high successful morphological and functional rates, with few postoperative complications associated. We describe a case with development of clinically significant macular edema treated effectively. Case Study: 65 year-old patient with full thickness macular...

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Treatment of Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Comparison of Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling and Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection

Hande Etus, Levent Karabas, Yusuf Çaglar (Kocaeli, Turkey) Advantages: To compare anatomic and functional results in patients with macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and intravitreal bevacizumab injection treatment (IVBT). Methods: A total of 29 patients were examined retrospective. PPV with ILM peeling was performed in Group A...

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Glycemic Control and Macular Thickness in Diabetic Patients

Angela VP Loo, YH Yew, S Menon (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) Purpose: To measure macular thickness and volume in diabetic patients with High Definition Optical Coherence Tomography (HD-OCT) and to assess their relationship with the respective glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). Methods: This was a cross sectional, observational study where 165 eyes in 165 diabetic patients with increased macular thickness regardless of diabetic retinopathy...

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Micropulse Contiguous Grid Laser in Eyes with Diffuse Macular Edema Due to Diabetic Retinopathy

SH Sinclair (Drexel Univ School Med), B Parvus (Pennsylvania College of Osteopathic Medicine), L Lofdahl (Salus University), P Presti (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta) Objective: To investigate micropulse contiguous grid laser in the treatment of eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema (DDME) involving the fovea, resistant to prior treatment and second, to correlate OCT findings with central discriminant visual fields...

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Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Treating Postoperative Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema

Kubilhan Elmas, Özgür Bilen, Ali Altýnsoy (Ankara, Turkey) Purpose: To describe the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patients with cystoid macular edema (CME) after cataract surgery (Irvine-Gass syndrome). Methods: This retrospective case series comprised 8 eyes of 8 patients with CME after cataract surgery refractory to current standard treatment that received an injection of 1.25 mg intravitreal Avastin. The main...

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Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema: Bevacizumab versus Multifocal Photocoagulation

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Vladimir Poposki, Daniel  Vilaplana, Daniela Poposka, Isaac Alarcón, O.  Marínez-Giralt, M. Castilla , Barcelona, Spain Advantages: To evaluate the efficacy of Bevacizumab regarding photocoagulation in the treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema (EMDD). Methods: In a prospective and randomised study, 25 eyes of 15 patients with mean age of 70 years were analysed....

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ILM Peeling in CME Secondary to RVO

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Author: Didier Ducournau, Nantes, France As I already previously presented in a former EVRS Congress, removing the ILM induces a retinal response with a gliosis of the Muller Cells. This filling of microfibers of GFAP has different effects:  Fight against the blood retinal barrier break down and then against the edema Maintaining the retinal thickness re-establishing a...

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Revisiting Retinal Vein Occlusions

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Author: Robert Nutt, Johannesburg, South Africa Advantages: CRVO has an incidence of 01.- 0.4% in individuals over the age of forty .  BRVO has an incidence of 0.4 – 0.9%. These numbers differ with age. The nature of these occlusions is such that they are not well anticipated. The result is that once present, the management becomes that of managing the complications....

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Visual Outcomes in Five Different Approaches for Treatment of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Authors: Masoud Soheilian, Alireza Ramezani, Ali Tavallali, Mohammad R. Mohebbi, Gholam A. Peyman, Tehran, Iran Advantages: Four treatment methods for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) were compared with its natural course. Methods: In this partially prospective, comparative, interventional case series on 63 eyes with CRVO, five approaches were compared: intravitreal...

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Our Current Multitasking Approach to BRVO and CRVO

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Authors: Vincenzo Ferrara, G. Macrì, Vito Belloli, Arona, Italy Advantages: Macular dysfunction occurs in almost all eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusions (BRVO) presenting a persistent macular edema, nonperfusion of the parafoveal capillaries, and damage to the retinal pigment epithelium caused by extensive hemorrhage. Actually...

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Bevacizumab for Retinal Vein Occlusions

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Authors: Ron A. Adelman, M.K. George, New Haven, CT, USA Advantages: Improvement in visual acuity and macular edema in patients with retinal vein occlusions. Methods: 19 patients with retinal vein occlusions were included in the study. Patients received monthly injections of bevacizumab for 3 months. During follw up, additional injection was performed if edema was detected...

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9 Months Results of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection for the Treatment of Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Authors: Sun-Taek Lim, Chang-Ryong Kim, Young-Duk Kim, South Korea Background: To evaluate the long-term functional and anatomical effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab treatment in eyes with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: In this retrospective interventional case series, 59 consecutive, previously untreated eyes with macular edema...

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Choroidal Response to Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Macular Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Authors: Raimondo Forte, Gilda Cennamo, Elisabetta Chiariello Vecchio, Maria Angelica Breve, Giuseppe de Crecchio, Naples, Italy Advantages: To evaluate choroidal thickness changes in macular edema from different aetiologies after intravitreal bevacizumab. Methods: Prospective, non-randomized, evaluation of 34 eyes (34 patients) with macular edema from different...

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Evaluation of Intravitreal Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide in Treatment of Macular Edema Secondary to BRVO

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Author: Asaad A. Ghanem, Mansoura, Egypt Advantages: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for the treatment of macular oedema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: Thirty-four eyes with macular edema associated with BRVO. Patients were classified into two groups according to the nature of macular...

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Intravitreal Bevacizumab vs Macular Grid Photocoagulation in Non-Ischemic BRVO

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Retinal-Vein-Occlusions.flv Authors: Isaac Alarcon, Daniel Vilaplana, Vladimir Poposki, Olga Martinez-Giralt, Miguel Castilla, Xenia Acebes, Barcelona, Spain Advantages: Intravitreal Bevacizumab achieves better results in terms of visual acuity in these patients. Methods: Prospective randomized clinical study with 20 patients with non-ischemic BRVO with macular edema. 11 female an 9 male, the mean...

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Laser Micropulse in CSME

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Which-Laser.flv Author: Ihab Saad Othman, Giza, Egypt Advantages: Laser micropulse in CSME offers the clear advantage of not inducing a visible retinal burn and having a potential efficacy in reducing foveal thickness. Methods: Prospective case series. Two hundred and twenty cases of non-ischemic CSME with macular thickness less than 400 microns as defined by OCT were managed primarily and...

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Pascal Laser vs Conventional Laser in Daily Practice and Diabetic Retinopathy

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Which-Laser.flv Authors: Vincenzo Ferrara, G.F. Pacelli, Vito Belloli, Arona, Italy Advantages: Pascal® is a short-pulsed patterned scanning laser photocoagulation system which offers the main advantages of applying multiple spots almost simultaneously in different patterns chosen on the basis of different available models. The operator can select arcs, circular grid or sections of grids or use a...

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Should PASCAL Laser Replace Conventional Laser for the Treatment of Macular Edema and Ischemic Retinopathies ?

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Which-Laser.flv Author: Catherine Favard, Paris, France Advantages: The Pattern Scanning Laser (Pascal) is a new semi-automatic photocoagulator using short pulses of 10 to 20 milliseconds applied in square (2X2 to 5X5 impacts) or grid (14 to 56 impacts) patterns. Methods: We evaluated Pascal laser efficacy and safety for the treatment of macular edema (ME) in 15 eyes and ischemic retinopathy in...

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ILM Peeling in DME

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Author: Ivan Fiser, Prague, Czech Republic Advantages: The ILM peeling has a beneficial effect in DME in which laser treatment is ineffective (MA in FAZ, CME, diffuse DME). Methods: Forty eyes of 35 patients 17 male, 18 female, mean age 60.2 ± 14.8)were operated using the ILM peeling with the help of trypan blue. Effectiveness / Safety: Anatomical finding (foveal thickness, lipids)...

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Extrafoveal Vitreous Traction Associated with Diabetic Diffuse Macular Oedema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Avinoam Ophir, Trevino A, Fatum S., Haifa, Israel Purpose: To present an association between diabetic diffuse macular oedema and extrafoveal vitreous traction by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: In a retrospective study, charts and OCT scans of diabetic patients with macular oedema were reviewed. Eyes with either vitreofoveal or extrafoveal traction were included....

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Timing and Strategy for Vitrectomy in Diabetic Macula Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Vincenzo Ferrara, G.F. Pacelli, Vito Belloli, Arona, Italy Advantages: To assess the impact of vitrectomy on Macular Sensitivity (MS) in our management of Diabetic Macular Edema, investigating possible implications of different vitreo-retinal relationships in the efficacy of our surgical treatment. Methods: We analysed patients with Diabetic Macular Edema thicker than 450 microns...

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Application of Bevacizumab (Avastin) in Patients with Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration and in Patients with Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Dorota Palenga-Pydyn, Joanna Bartela, Iwona Laudañska-Olszewska, Lodz, Poland Advantages: Application of Bevacizumab is a new tool in ARMD and diffuses diabetic macular edema treatment. As it seems after 20 months of use it is effective. Methods: The study included 20 patients with excudative age-related macular degeneration and 15 patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema....

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Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) in Diabetic Macular Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Stanislav Rodin, Veronika Aslanova, Odessa, Ukraine Advantages: Intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with diabetic macular edema allowed significant visual improvement in patients with diabetic macular edema in short term after injection. Methods: 26 patients (34 eyes), (22 females, 4 males), mean age 62 y/o, with diabetic macular edema were consecutively enrolled in the...

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Peribulbar Triamcinolone for Diabetic Macular Edema: Efficacy without Effects on Glycemic Control

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Salim Ben Yahia, Ines Khochtali, Haikal Neifar, Salma Gargouri,  Thameur Fattoum, Moncef Khairallah, Monastir, Tunisia Advantages: To manage diabetic macular edema (DME) with peribulbar injection of triamcinolone, known to have lower rate of ocular complications than intravitreal injection. Methods: A single peribulbar injection of triamcinolone (40 mg) was performed. Outcome...

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Randomized Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Alone or Combined with Triamcinolone vs Macular Photocoagulation in Diabetic Macular Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2009/congress/Diabetes.flv Authors: Masoud Soheilian, Alireza Ramezani, Arash Obudi, Bijan Bijanzadeh, Masoud Salehipour, Mehdi Yaseri, Hamid Ahmadieh, Mohammad H Dehghan, Mohsen Azarmina, MD, Siamak Moradian, Gholam A. Peyman, Tehran, Iran Advantages: To compare the results of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection alone or in combination with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) versus macular laser...

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The Comparison of Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) Versus Avastin in Clinically Significant Macular Edema

Masih Hashemi, Roshanak Aliakbar Navahi, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani Advantages: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, we compared safety and effectiveness of intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) versus Avastin in patients with Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME). Methods: Four mg TA was injected in 28 eyes and 1.25 mg Avastin was injected in 23 eyes of patients with CSME. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure,...

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Evaluation of Dengue Maculopathy with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Caroline K. Chee, MBBS, FRCSEd, FRCOphth (Singapore, Singapore), Stephen Teoh, MBBS, MMedOphth, FRCSEd(Ophth) (Singapore, Singapore) PURPOSE: (1) To study and characterisethe optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in dengue maculopathy. (2) To correlate the findings with visual function and eventual visual outcome. METHODS: 35 consecutive patients with dengue fever were referred for visual symptoms. They were found to have reduced...

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Stardust – Triamcinolone Acetonide in Macular Surgery

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2006/videos/Stardust-Triamcinolone-Acetonide-in-Macular-Surgery.flv Joseph Moisseiev, MD (Tel Aviv, Israel) SYNOPSIS The film demonstrates how injection of Triamcinolone acetonide during vitrectomy improves the visibility of residual cortical vitreous in three cases: a case of vitreomacular traction syndrome, diabetic macular edema in an eye with PDR, and very thin ERM following PVD with multiple retinal breaks....

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Short-term Outcomes in Over 500 Intravitreal Bevacizumab Treatments for Retinal or Choroidal Vascular Disease at the New York Eye & Ear Infirmary

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2006/congress/Short-term-Outcomes-in-Over-500-Intravitreal-Bevacizumab-Treatments-for-Retinal-or-Choroidal-Vascular-Disease-at-the-New-York-Eye-Ear-Infirmary.swf Thomas O. Muldoon, MD (New York, NY), Richard B. Rosen, MD (New York, NY), Sean C. Lalin, MD (New York, NY), Jeanette Dominguez, MD (New York, NY), Ronald C. Gentile, MD(New York, NY) PURPOSE: Assess the short-term outcomes in patients who received...

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The Effect of an Intravitreal Triamcinolone Injection in Macular Edema Secondary to Parafoveal Telangiectasis Type 2A

Lihteh Wu, MD (San Jose, Costa Rica), Teodoro Evans, MD (San Jose, Costa Rica), J. Fernando Arevalo, MD, FACS (Caracas, Venezuela), Maria H. Berrocal, MD (Santurce, PR), Francisco J. Rodriguez, MD (Bogota, Colombia), Maria Hsu, MD (San Jose, Costa Rica), Juan G. Sanchez, MD (Caracas, Venezuela) PURPOSE: To report the visual outcome and ocular complications of an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone (IVT) in the treatment of macular edema...

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Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) as Salvage Treatment of Refractory Choroidal Neovascularization and Macular Edema from Retinal Vascular Disease

Michael M. Lai, MD, PhD (Royal Oak, MI), Tamer F. Eliwa, MD (Royal Oak, MI), Antonio Capone, MD (Royal Oak, MI), Tarek S. Hassan, MD (Royal Oak, MI), Kimberly A. Drenser, MD (Royal Oak, MI) PURPOSE: To evaluate the anatomic and visual outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema, and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion unresponsive to...

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Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) as Treatment for Macular Edema in Vein Occlusions

Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo, MD (Mexico City, Mexico), Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, MD (Mexico City, Mexico), Virgilio Morales- Canton, MD (Mexico City, Mexico), Jans Fromow-Guerra, MD, PhD (Mexico City, Mexico), Griselda Alvarez-Rivera, MD (Mexico City,Mexico), Adriana Solis-Vivanco, MD (Mexico City, Mexico), Elizabeth Reyna-Castelan, MD (Mexico City, Mexico), Maura Abraham, MD (Mexico City, Mexico), Juan Manuel Jimenez-Sierra, MD (Mexico City,...

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Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Treatment of Macular Edema in Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Ajay Dudani, MD (Mumbai, India), Alay S Banker, MD (Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India), J. Fernando Arevalo, MD, FACS (Caracas, Venezuela) PURPOSE: To report the anatomic and visual acuity response after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in patients with macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: Prospective study of patients with macular edema due to CRVO/BRVO who were treated...

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Short Term Visual and Anatomic Outcomes Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

Jose A. Roca, MD (Lima, Peru), Lihteh Wu, MD (San Jose, Costa Rica), Fernando Arevalo, MD (Caracas, Venezuela), Mauricio Maia, MD (São Paulo, Brazil), Maria H. Berrocal, MD (Santurce, PR), Francisco J. Rodriguez, MD (Bogota, Colombia), Michel Eid Farah, MD, PhD (São Paulo, Brazil), Fabio Bom Aggio, MD (São Paulo, Brazil) PURPOSE: To describe the visual and anatomic outcomes of an intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab...

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Pegaptanib Sodium for the Treatment of Macular Edema Following Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

John A. Wells, MD, FACS (Columbia, SC),* PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) both promotes angiogenesis and enhances vascular permeability. VEGF levels rise following retinal vein occlusion. Selective VEGF blockade has been effective in treating diabetic macular edema. The current trial examined whether this approach was effective in treating macular edema that follows CRVO. METHODS: A randomized, multicenter, double-masked,...

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A Meta-analysis of Visual Outcome Following Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide for Macular Edema in Retinal Vascular Disorders

Ron A. Adelman, MD, MPH (New Haven, CT), Adarsh Arya, MD (New Haven, CT), John Emerson, PhD (New Haven, CT) PURPOSE: To study predictive factors that determine visual improvement following intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema in diabetes and retinal vein occlusions. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed on the articles reporting functional outcome following intravitreal triamcinolone in macular edema associated with...

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Optical Coherence Tomography Evaluation of Macular Edema after Radial Optic Neurotomy in Patients Affected by Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2005/congress/Optical-Coherence-Tomography-Evaluation-of-Macular-Edema-after-Radial-Optic-Neurotomy-in-Patients-Affected-by-Central-Retinal-Vein-Occlusion.swf F. Patelli, P. Radice, G. Zumbo, F. M. Di Tizio, G. Fasolino, S. Marchi Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of macular edema (ME) before and after radial optic neurotomy (RON) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT), in patients with central...

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Comparative Study of Surgical and Conservative Medical Treatment of Vascular Occlusions

Indu Singh, MS Purpose: To compare the results of Vitrectomy with vein decompression (for BRVO) and neurotomy (for CRVO) and conservative management of these diseases with photocoagulation and intraocular injection of Triamcinolone. Methods: 52 eyes with Macular edema and visual acuity worse than 6/24 secondary to BRVO and CRVO were taken up for this study. Four groups were formed wherein the patients underwent either medical or surgical...

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Use of YAG-Laser Retinopuncture for the Treatment of Cystoid Macular Edema (CME) Caused by Thrombosis of Central Retinal Vein and its Branches

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2005/congress/Use of YAG-Laser Retinopuncture for the Treatment of Cystoid Macular-Edema-(CME)-Caused-by-Thrombosis-of-Central-Retinal-Vein-and-its-Branches.swf Kh. P. Takhchidi, I. A. Malov Purpose: To analyze the results of YAG-laser retinopuncture use for the treatment of cystoid macular edema caused by thrombosis of central retinal vein and its branches. Methods: Eighty patients with cystoid macular edema...

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Results and Complications of Vitrectomy and Internal Limiting Membrane Removal in the Treatment of Macular Edema

Ferenc Kuhn, Robert Morris, Viktoria Mester, Gyongyi Kiss, Zsuzsanna Szijarto, Balint Kovacs, Beatrix Cser Purpose: To evaluate the results and complications of internal limiting membrane (ILM) removal in the treatment of macular edema. Methods: Retrospective and prospective studies on eyes undergoing vitrectomy with ILM removal for eyes with clinically significant macular edema. Results: Of the 68 eyes, follow-up (average: 9 months) was...

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Clinical Outcome after Vitrectomy with or without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Proliferative Diabetic Vitreoretinopathy Patients with Macular Edema

L. O. Hattenbach, P. N. Jentzmik, J. Puchta, Y. Sinangin, F. Koch – Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Netzhaut- und Glaskörperchirurgie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Purpose: To investigate visual recovery and clinical outcome after pars plana vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in patients with macular edema associated with proliferative diabetic vitreoretinopathy...

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Laser Treatment for Macular Edema

Elisabet Agardh – Ophthalmology, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden Purpose: Macular edema is a major sight-threatening manifestation of retinal vascular disease. Vascular lesions resulting in non-perfusion and hypoxia and subsequent autoregulation of the blood flow, lead to dilation of the arterioles and an increased hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries and venules. The pressure lays an extra burden on the already weakened vessel...

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Different Effect of Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide in the Management of Macular Edema Secondary to Perfusion Type and Ischemic Type Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Yun-Sik Yang, Cang-uk Choi, Yong-Woo Kim Purpose: To evaluate the difference of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in the management of macular edema secondary to perfusion type and ischemic type branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: 44 patients consecutive patients were selected with a BRVO with macular edema. 23 were perfusion type and twenty one were ischemic type BRVO. These patients received a single intravitreal injection...

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Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection for the Management of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

N. Acar, M. Çakır, Y. B. Ünver, Z. Kapran, T. Altan, Z. Bayraktar, E. Y. Pınarcı, I. Perente, M. Dogan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection for the treatment of macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) by OCT. Methods: In this prospective study, a total 42 eyes of 42 patients with BRVO in which visual acuity is ≤ 0.5 Snellen lines with ME were included in...

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Intravitreal Triamcinolone (IVT) for Diabetic Massive Macular Hard Exudates

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2005/congress/Intravitreal-Triamcinolone-(IVT)-for-Diabetic-Massive-Macular-Hard-Exudates.swf S. Ben Yahia , B. Jelliti, K. Hmidi, F. Amouri, S. Attia, R. Messaoud, A. Ladjimi, M. Khairallah Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as treatment for massive macular hard exudates in diabetic patients. Methods: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, of twelve...

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Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2005/congress/Intravitreal-Triamcinolone-Acetonide-Injection-for-the-Management-of-Diabetic-Macular-Edema.swf Mehmet Cakir, MD, C. Aslı Utine, MD, Nur Acar, MD, Y. Banu Ünver, MD, Muhammed Beyazal, MD, Irfan Perente, MD, Tugrul Altan, MD, Zerrin Bayraktar, MD, E. Yaman Pınarcı, MD, Ziya Kapran – Beyoglu Eye Research and Education Hospital, Istanbul Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal...

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Confounding Factors on the Effect of Intravitreal Triamcinolone for Refractory Diabetic Macular Edema

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2005/congress/Confounding-Factors-on-the-Effect-of-Intravitreal-Triamcinolone-for-Refractory-Diabetic-Macular-Edema.swf Ali R. Ramezani, MD, Hamid Ahmadieh, MD Purpose: To evaluate the influences of different confounding factors on the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) according to clinical, angiographic and optical coherence tomographic...

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Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide (IVTA) for Diabetic Macular Edema (DME): Primary vs Secondary

http://www.evrs.eu/medias/2005/congress/Intravitreal-Triamcinolone-Acetonide-(IVTA)-for-Diabetic-Macular-Edema-(DME):-Primary-vs-Secondary.swf B. V. Kumar, L. Dhir, C. Murphy, S. Prasad Purpose: To compare benefit of IVTA in patients with DME as a Primary treatment option or as Secondary option after laser treatment. Methods: Non-randomised retrospective case review was done of 8 patients with DME who had undergone treatment with...

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