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Quantitative Determination and Comparison of Intravitreal Cytokines in PDR and RVO

Purpose: To determine inflammatory and angiogenetic cytokine levels from undiluted vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DRP), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and exsudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and compare them with clinical and anatomic changes. Methods: 187 patients (median age 67.0 years, 101 male) underwent a single-site 23-gauge core vitrectomy for a centred intravitreal application of a combined therapy...

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Neurobiological Principles Applied to Retinal Diseases

Retinal and macular diseases are a major cause of visual impairment and affect the quality of life for millions worldwide. Clinical manifestations of retinal diseases result from perturbations in normal cellular behavior and adaptive changes to genetic mutations interacting with environmental factors. During the last years retinal surgery has fine-tuned the techniques and instrumentation, greatly increasing surgical success but not always...

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